More wired than a Roman Internet café
Latin Sentence Translation Steps
Carmenta Online Latin
I) Analyze every single word in the sentence, starting with the first one and going all the way to the last one. a) Determine what part of speech a word is (noun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition). b) If it is a noun or an adjective, determine the gender, number, and case. c) If it is a verb, determine the tense, person, and number. d) If it is a preposition, determine what case the object of the preposition must be in. e) Many words could have multiple possibilities with regard to form. For instance, "nautae" could be either nominative plural, genitive singular, or dative singular. Make sure you take note of each possibility.
f) Use the book's vocabulary section or a Latin dictionary to look up each word.
II) Locate all the prepositions in the sentence. a) Find out from the vocabulary section what case the object of that preposition is in.
b) Match up prepositions with their objects.
c) Find any words that modify the object of the preposition (either adjectives, or nouns in the genitive case; adjectives must agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case).
d) Translate each prepositional phrase completely.
III) Locate the verb in the sentence.
a) See what the person and number is of the verb.
b) If the verb is first or second person, it will probably only have its implicit subject as a subject (1st-person singular: "I"; 1st-person plural: "we"; 2nd-person singular: "you"; 2nd-person plural: "you (pl.)"),
c) But if the verb is in the third person, there is a good chance that it could have a separate subject (at the same time, though, there remains a good chance that the subject is still only the implicit subject—it could easily go either way in the third person).
d) Look for a noun that could be the subject of the sentence. To work as the subject, it must satisfy two requirements: 1) It must be in the nominative case. 2) It must agree in number with the verb.
e) If there is no noun in the sentence that satisfies these two requirements, then you know only the implicit subject is used.
IV) Translate the subject and verb together.
V) Find any words that modify the subject of the sentence (adjectives, or nouns in the genitive case). Translate these modifiers together with the subject. Translate together the subject, verb, and their modifiers.
VI) Look to see if there is an infinitive in the sentence. If there is, then the infinitive is put after the verb in your translation. Translate subject, verb, and infinitive (if there is one), and their modifiers.
VII) Look for the direct object of the sentence.
a) To be the direct object, a noun must be in the accusative case and it must not be the object of a preposition.
b) Find any words that modify the direct object and translate them together with the direct object.
c)Translate the subject, verb, infinitive (if there is one), direct object, and their modifiers all together.
VIII) Look for the indirect object of the sentence.
a) To be the indirect object, a noun must be in the dative case.
b) Find any words that modify the indirect object and translate then together with the indirect object.
c) Translate the subject, verb, infinitive (if there is one), direct object, indirect object, and their modifiers all together.
IX) Look for any adverbs. Translate the whole sentence with these added in.
X) Look for any words that introduce clauses, like interrogatives (e.g., "ubi", "quid") and words that introduce dependent clauses (e.g., "si", "cum", "ut"). Translate the sentence with these added in.
XI) Translate the whole sentence with everything so far, but now add in the prepositional phrases. That is the last step. You are done.